14 April 1907 – 21 April 1971), also known as Papa Doc, was the President of Haiti from 1957 to 1971.[3] He was elected president in 1957 on a populist and black nationalist platform. After thwarting a military coup d'état in 1958, his regime rapidly became totalitarian. An undercover death squad, the Tonton Macoute,killed indiscriminately and was thought to be so pervasive that Haitians became fearful of expressing dissent even in private. Duvalier further solidified his rule by incorporating elements of Haitian mythology into a personality cult.

Prior to his rule, Duvalier was a physician by profession. His profession and expertise in the field acquired him the nickname "Papa Doc". He was unanimously "re-elected" in a 1961 referendum in which he was the only candidate. Afterwards, he consolidated his power step by step, culminating in 1964 when he became President for Life after another faulty election, and remained in power until he died in 1971